A Batter’s Hard Hit Angle: Introduction

I had no idea who Dylan Moser was. In all respects to Dylan and his family, I still don’t. When I saw an article about him come through my feed, I was interested in how Tanner Stokey described Driveline Baseball’s evaluation of Moser. While Driveline has its own advocates and critics, it pushes the research bounds so I wanted to see what they considered important about Mr. Moser. Immediately, I saw this little nugget.

The “Average Hit Angle of Hard Hit Balls” caught my eye and I’ve been investigating its implications ever since.

Determining and finding the effectiveness of a hitter’s launch angle spread has been investigated several times in the past. Andrew Perpetua pointed out the importance of High Line Drives (a close cousin to Barrels) and how too much of an uppercut can hurt a player’s production. Alex Chamberlain and Brock Hammit both found a link between the standard deviation in launch angle and increased production.

It was because of the work from the last two that Stokely’s article piqued my interest. Moser had an Average Launch Angle of 13.36 degrees while his Hard Hit Launch Angle was -5.67 degrees. If a hitter only makes solid contact on groundballs, his upside is limited. I just assumed that most hitters would have batted balls evenly distributed on both sides of their ideal swing has Perpetua shows here:

I needed to dive in to find out more.

First, I came up with a standard for a Hard Hit ball. Instead of using the 95-mph standard from Baseball Savant, I moved the value up to 98 mph which catches 20% of all batted balls and has an xwOBA over .400.

With the threshold, I determined I needed to use the difference between Average Hard Hit Launch Angle and the Average Launch Angle for all other batted balls (Average Hard Hit Difference or AHHD). This decision was filled with trial-and-error and I sure some other more predictive and usable variants could be found. It’s the best that a man, a weekend, and some High Life could find for now.

Determining the stat’s repeatability was next. If the stat shows no sign of repeating, it’s useless for evaluating players. Here are the year-to-year values for the match pairs with a match harmonic mean of 500, 300, and 100 balls in play.

The season-to-season values have some predictive value and with the stabilization point somewhere around 100 to 200 balls in play.

Since AHHD is predictive, I went down several wormholes and came out finding that AHHD pairs best with the Average Launch Angle and the Maximum Exit Velo for being predictive. The Average Launch Angle provides a value that the AHHD is centered around. If two hitters have the same AHHD, the one with the Average Launch Angle of 15 degrees is more productive than the one at 0 degrees. The Max Exit Velo is needed because a hitter can have the perfect launch angle but if his Max Exit Velo is 90 mph, he’s going to be unproductive.

I’ve been trying to use several methods to evaluate data to see where the final differ. I used three models to help predict several outcomes using Hit% (i.e. BABIP plus home runs). Simple. Batting Average contains strikeouts and BABIP removes home runs so I need a compromise. I took the three values and found the linear regression equation. Also, I ran them through the TREE and CTREE functions in R to determine certain groupings.

Linear Regression

TREE Function

CTree

There is a lot of information, so it’s time to simplify. The biggest takeaway for me with the linear regression model, the final three variables are highly significant … but I knew that since I had already done some trimming to just these three. While the launch angle is significant in this equation, it barely shows up in the two trees.

The TREE function provides some simple benchmarks. I hitter with a Max EV at 109 mph or more and an AHHD over 4.4 puts their Average on All Batted Balls at least 20 points higher (i.e .318 vs .336) but could be 70 points. I’m coming back here soon.

The CTree output is a little harder to take in. The underlying function found the 109 mph break. The next node (#9) divides AHHD almost at 0 with those with a positive AHHD having a higher Hit Rate. Max Exit velocity shows up three more times on the right side with dividing values at 111.5, 113, and 114.5. Also, at node 10, the -4.4 AHHD value shows up again.

Using the above values, I grouped the hitters into several categories (min 30 balls in play).

Hit Rates for Various Max Exit Velo and AHHD
Parameter Hit% BABIP AVG
<= 109 Max EV .313 .294 .249
<= 109 Max EV or AHHD < -4.4 .325 .297 .253
> 109 Max EV .339 .302 .257
> 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .345 .307 .259
> 113 Max EV .350 .305 .262
> 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355 .312 .265

First and foremost, the AHHD variable takes a major backseat to Max Exit Velo in determining any hit rate. At the major league level, it takes a certain power baseline to be an above-average hitter. The difference between just the two groups split at 109 mph is stark. 26 points in Hit%, 8 points in BABIP and AVG. The difference only goes up from there as the data is split into smaller groups. The other change is that a decent AHHD adds about 5 points to a hitters BABIP. One use for this data for is to regress BABIP and similar measures to these individual batted-ball measures instead of assuming one league-average rate,

With preceding information known, here is how hitters performed in 2019 with the various values (min 100 PA).

2019 Various Hit Rates
NAME PA BIP Hard Hit Angle Launch Angle Max EV AHHD Hit% BABIP AVG Grouping xHIT%
Vladimir Guerrero Jr. 514 372 4.9 6.4 118.9 -2.3 .336 .308 .272 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .362
Gary Sanchez 446 269 18.7 19.2 118.3 -0.6 .338 .244 .232 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .373
Pete Alonso 693 416 13.8 14.6 118.3 -1.3 .372 .280 .260 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .368
Aristides Aquino 225 147 16.9 18.3 118.3 -1.9 .361 .266 .259 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .369
Aaron Judge 447 238 13.4 11.4 118.1 4.1 .431 .360 .272 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .378
Yordan Alvarez 369 221 14.5 13.4 117.9 1.8 .443 .366 .313 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .372
Christian Yelich 580 369 12.0 11.3 117.9 1.1 .431 .355 .329 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .369
Jose Abreu 693 488 10.6 10.9 117.9 -0.6 .366 .320 .284 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .365
Kyle Schwarber 610 376 15.1 15.1 117.6 0.1 .348 .276 .250 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .368
Nelson Cruz 521 324 14.8 13.2 117.0 2.9 .431 .351 .311 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .371
Mike Trout 600 350 21.0 21.9 116.6 -1.5 .387 .298 .291 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .365
Bryce Harper 682 395 17.6 13.0 116.4 7.4 .373 .313 .260 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .379
Ketel Marte 628 481 9.9 11.4 116.3 -2.2 .386 .342 .329 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
Josh Bell 613 413 14.1 13.0 116.2 1.8 .351 .288 .277 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .364
Avisail Garcia 530 364 10.4 9.8 116.2 0.8 .376 .340 .282 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .359
Mike Zunino 289 168 19.5 19.6 116.1 0.0 .262 .220 .165 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .364
Fernando Tatis Jr. 372 224 13.8 7.2 115.9 10.7 .467 .410 .317 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .380
C.J. Cron 499 349 14.5 12.9 115.9 2.7 .329 .277 .253 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .365
Ronald Acuna Jr. 715 435 15.3 14.2 115.9 1.7 .396 .337 .280 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .364
Yoan Moncada 559 357 10.9 12.0 115.8 -1.8 .446 .406 .315 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Jorge Soler 679 414 16.1 15.5 115.7 0.9 .373 .294 .265 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .362
Joey Gallo 297 129 26.2 20.4 115.4 12.1 .473 .368 .253 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .391
Austin Meadows 591 396 16.3 16.8 115.4 -0.7 .386 .331 .291 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .357
Marcell Ozuna 549 369 14.2 13.5 115.3 1.3 .315 .257 .241 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .359
Rowdy Tellez 409 254 14.3 13.8 115.2 0.7 .327 .267 .227 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .357
Shohei Ohtani 425 274 11.6 7.1 115.1 7.5 .393 .354 .286 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .368
Josh Naylor 279 189 4.9 4.8 115.1 0.1 .332 .302 .249 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .348
Franmil Reyes 548 341 14.6 9.6 115.0 8.7 .357 .279 .249 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .373
Rafael Devers 702 528 11.1 10.3 115.0 1.3 .379 .339 .311 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
Justin Bour 170 97 9.7 10.3 115.0 -0.9 .260 .196 .172 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .350
Jonathan Schoop 464 318 10.9 12.5 114.9 -2.4 .349 .298 .256 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Jorge Alfaro 465 278 9.4 4.6 114.7 7.7 .405 .364 .262 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .365
J.D. Davis 453 311 11.5 10.8 114.7 1.3 .400 .355 .307 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
Pablo Sandoval 296 209 10.8 10.2 114.7 1.1 .348 .304 .268 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Nick Markakis 469 360 5.1 7.3 114.7 -3.4 .327 .310 .285 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Nomar Mazara 469 326 13.0 10.8 114.6 3.2 .352 .312 .268 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .358
Jung Ho Kang 강정호 185 113 15.4 13.6 114.5 2.6 .257 .184 .169 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .359
Brian Anderson 520 344 12.6 11.2 114.4 2.2 .345 .305 .261 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
George Springer 556 370 14.2 10.3 114.3 6.1 .378 .305 .292 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .363
Eric Hosmer 667 457 4.7 2.0 114.3 4.4 .356 .323 .265 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Brandon Lowe 327 183 21.0 18.9 114.3 3.4 .435 .377 .270 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .364
Yandy Diaz 347 250 7.1 5.7 114.3 2.4 .328 .288 .267 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .351
Miguel Sano 439 221 18.4 16.1 114.2 4.5 .423 .319 .247 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .364
Josh Donaldson 659 394 14.3 13.3 114.2 1.7 .359 .292 .259 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
Javier Baez 561 374 13.6 7.5 114.1 9.6 .395 .345 .281 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .369
Eloy Jimenez 504 334 12.4 9.4 114.1 4.9 .372 .308 .267 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .359
Hunter Renfroe 494 291 18.8 19.0 114.1 -0.4 .325 .239 .216 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
Mitch Moreland 335 226 15.3 10.0 114.0 8.3 .332 .271 .252 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .367
Carlos Gonzalez 166 95 5.9 1.7 114.0 5.9 .305 .283 .200 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
Jonathan Villar 714 470 8.4 7.0 114.0 1.9 .372 .341 .274 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .349
Trey Mancini 679 464 10.6 7.8 113.9 4.5 .377 .326 .291 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .356
Michael Chavis 382 216 12.8 12.1 113.8 1.0 .400 .347 .254 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .350
David Bote 356 210 8.1 7.8 113.8 0.4 .368 .333 .257 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .345
Joc Pederson 514 339 14.5 15.1 113.7 -0.9 .328 .249 .249 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Victor Caratini 279 188 9.4 6.6 113.6 3.8 .346 .305 .266 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .352
Ian Desmond 482 326 8.0 8.3 113.6 -0.4 .346 .304 .255 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Garrett Cooper 421 272 9.6 4.5 113.5 7.8 .392 .357 .281 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .359
Trea Turner 569 406 7.1 9.7 113.5 -4.0 .378 .348 .298 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Anthony Rizzo 613 428 12.0 12.5 113.4 -0.7 .350 .306 .293 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .344
Brad Miller 170 107 14.8 17.2 113.4 -4.0 .367 .281 .260 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Tommy Pham 654 442 7.8 5.0 113.3 4.3 .348 .316 .273 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .350
Giovanny Urshela 476 357 14.2 13.7 113.3 0.7 .387 .349 .314 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .348
Starlin Castro 676 532 8.2 10.7 113.3 -3.5 .322 .293 .270 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Chris Iannetta 164 91 10.3 8.7 113.2 3.1 .352 .306 .222 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .350
David Peralta 423 292 6.1 6.6 113.2 -0.7 .355 .327 .275 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Willson Contreras 409 258 10.8 7.2 113.1 5.2 .377 .314 .272 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Rougned Odor 581 344 17.8 16.3 113.1 2.4 .309 .244 .205 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Danny Santana 511 327 14.9 13.4 113.1 2.2 .407 .353 .283 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .351
Hunter Pence 316 219 10.4 10.1 113.1 0.4 .388 .333 .297 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .344
Austin Dean 189 131 8.6 9.5 113.1 -1.2 .301 .270 .225 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Jean Segura 618 501 5.6 6.7 113.1 -1.5 .318 .302 .280 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Daniel Vogelbach 558 312 15.6 17.1 113.1 -2.2 .305 .232 .208 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Travis d’Arnaud 391 270 11.8 14.3 113.1 -3.7 .324 .281 .251 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Harold Ramirez 446 329 4.6 3.8 113.0 1.3 .349 .328 .276 > 113 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Hunter Dozier 586 380 11.7 16.7 115.1 -7.7 .384 .339 .279 > 113 Max EV .338
Renato Nunez 599 400 12.5 20.2 114.8 -11.3 .328 .272 .244 > 113 Max EV .331
Yasiel Puig 611 423 11.0 14.3 114.4 -4.8 .347 .308 .267 > 113 Max EV .340
Matt Chapman 670 435 13.4 16.3 114.4 -5.0 .330 .270 .249 > 113 Max EV .341
Tyler Naquin 294 212 7.5 12.2 114.4 -7.1 .373 .345 .288 > 113 Max EV .333
Johan Camargo 248 190 5.1 10.8 114.4 -7.8 .284 .258 .233 > 113 Max EV .330
Matt Beaty 268 216 6.5 10.2 114.3 -5.3 .306 .275 .265 > 113 Max EV .335
Dwight Smith Jr. 392 280 2.8 7.2 114.3 -6.2 .307 .274 .241 > 113 Max EV .331
Nathaniel Lowe 169 104 7.3 13.0 114.3 -9.6 .385 .340 .263 > 113 Max EV .327
Jeimer Candelario 386 237 10.2 15.6 114.2 -7.3 .287 .262 .203 > 113 Max EV .334
Maikel Franco 428 331 7.3 14.9 114.1 -11.2 .275 .236 .234 > 113 Max EV .324
Elias Diaz 332 247 -0.4 8.6 113.9 -12.5 .291 .286 .241 > 113 Max EV .315
Derek Fisher 167 89 5.7 8.4 113.8 -4.4 .303 .244 .185 > 113 Max EV .334
Gregory Polanco 167 104 13.5 18.5 113.7 -7.0 .352 .316 .242 > 113 Max EV .335
Byron Buxton 295 206 14.4 19.5 113.6 -7.6 .345 .314 .262 > 113 Max EV .334
Francisco Lindor 654 504 7.3 12.0 113.5 -6.9 .335 .291 .284 > 113 Max EV .329
Brandon Dixon 420 255 13.0 17.5 113.3 -6.7 .375 .336 .248 > 113 Max EV .333
Enrique Hernandez 460 316 12.4 19.4 113.3 -9.4 .305 .266 .237 > 113 Max EV .328
Travis Shaw 270 139 19.5 23.9 113.0 -6.0 .255 .216 .157 > 113 Max EV .338
Edwin Encarnacion 486 314 17.5 22.4 113.0 -7.5 .321 .239 .244 > 113 Max EV .333
Ryan McMahon 539 318 9.9 8.4 112.9 2.3 .373 .323 .250 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .346
J.T. Realmuto 593 420 12.6 14.4 112.9 -2.7 .349 .309 .275 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Roberto Perez 449 269 10.1 4.1 112.8 8.8 .341 .285 .239 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .358
Juan Soto 659 411 16.7 12.2 112.8 7.4 .368 .312 .282 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .361
Carlos Correa 321 208 14.4 12.4 112.8 3.3 .373 .303 .279 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .351
Erik Gonzalez 156 109 2.6 2.3 112.8 0.4 .330 .333 .254 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Carlos Santana 686 464 9.3 11.7 112.8 -3.8 .345 .293 .281 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
JaCoby Jones 333 204 11.1 13.9 112.8 -4.3 .340 .304 .235 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Ian Happ 156 102 18.4 15.5 112.7 4.1 .363 .286 .264 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
Luke Voit 510 287 19.4 12.8 112.6 9.7 .392 .345 .263 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .366
J.D. Martinez 657 438 12.8 12.6 112.6 0.3 .395 .342 .304 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Brandon Drury 447 306 12.0 13.9 112.5 -2.8 .296 .259 .218 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Keston Hiura 348 208 15.4 16.0 112.4 -0.9 .457 .402 .303 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .342
Howie Kendrick 370 290 10.0 11.0 112.4 -1.6 .397 .359 .344 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Christian Walker 603 372 13.5 14.7 112.4 -2.1 .365 .312 .259 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Xander Bogaerts 698 496 11.4 13.2 112.4 -2.7 .382 .338 .309 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .335
Adam Duvall 130 82 32.3 26.1 112.3 8.9 .390 .306 .267 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .373
Eugenio Suarez 662 389 17.5 18.1 112.3 -0.8 .398 .312 .271 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Michael Conforto 648 403 18.5 15.7 112.2 3.9 .348 .290 .257 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .352
Jackie Bradley Jr. 567 342 13.6 8.5 112.1 7.8 .323 .281 .225 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .356
Matt Adams 333 192 21.5 19.2 112.1 3.6 .357 .284 .226 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
Teoscar Hernandez 464 265 16.8 15.5 112.1 2.0 .362 .293 .230 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Bryan Reynolds 546 370 9.6 9.4 112.1 0.2 .413 .387 .314 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Robinson Cano 423 324 6.8 7.2 112.1 -0.6 .309 .280 .256 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Freddie Freeman 692 469 18.2 14.4 112.0 5.5 .373 .318 .295 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
James McCann 476 302 11.5 10.6 112.0 1.4 .396 .359 .273 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .341
Christin Stewart 416 268 19.0 19.2 112.0 -0.2 .316 .290 .233 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .344
Jon Berti 287 184 9.4 5.5 111.9 5.5 .380 .360 .273 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Sean Rodriguez 139 74 12.8 11.3 111.9 2.2 .329 .309 .223 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Matt Olson 547 340 16.3 18.0 111.9 -2.9 .373 .300 .267 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Shin-Soo Choo 660 395 13.7 8.6 111.8 8.3 .373 .333 .265 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .356
Hernan Perez 246 166 8.7 9.2 111.8 -0.6 .314 .283 .228 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Ryan Braun 508 353 9.1 6.9 111.7 3.6 .363 .325 .285 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .342
D.J. Stewart 142 101 14.2 12.0 111.7 2.9 .297 .268 .238 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .345
Albert Almora Jr. 363 280 7.3 8.1 111.7 -1.0 .282 .255 .236 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .332
Paul DeJong 664 437 16.6 18.4 111.7 -2.3 .309 .259 .233 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Tom Murphy 281 171 16.9 18.8 111.7 -3.1 .408 .340 .273 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .335
Austin Riley 297 165 18.5 20.9 111.7 -3.8 .369 .293 .226 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .335
Starling Marte 586 449 12.0 7.2 111.6 6.7 .353 .319 .295 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .350
Jake Marisnick 318 199 10.8 9.8 111.6 1.2 .340 .310 .233 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Ramon Laureano 481 318 12.4 14.8 111.6 -3.3 .391 .342 .288 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .331
Phillip Ervin 260 175 11.3 14.5 111.6 -4.0 .366 .339 .271 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Jake Cave 228 127 14.5 7.5 111.5 11.1 .398 .358 .258 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .360
Wil Myers 490 269 15.8 11.1 111.5 7.0 .387 .344 .239 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Paul Goldschmidt 682 434 16.7 15.3 111.5 2.1 .356 .303 .260 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .344
Scott Kingery 500 308 18.7 17.3 111.4 2.0 .376 .337 .258 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .345
Brian Goodwin 458 288 19.0 17.6 111.4 1.9 .375 .337 .262 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .345
Tyler White 279 163 12.9 12.3 111.4 0.7 .303 .290 .208 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Kevin Kiermaier 480 345 6.6 6.8 111.4 -0.2 .296 .267 .228 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .332
Adam Engel 248 150 9.5 10.0 111.4 -0.6 .367 .343 .242 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Kris Bryant 634 399 18.1 19.3 111.4 -1.6 .383 .331 .282 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .338
Pablo Reyes 157 107 9.4 11.8 111.4 -3.0 .271 .257 .203 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Miguel Cabrera 549 388 9.6 12.3 111.4 -4.1 .356 .336 .282 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .326
Austin Romine 240 179 7.8 10.5 111.4 -4.2 .356 .327 .281 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .325
Yasmani Grandal 632 374 13.6 13.9 111.3 -0.4 .333 .279 .246 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Alex Verdugo 377 296 8.1 8.9 111.3 -1.2 .337 .309 .294 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .330
Nicholas Castellanos 664 472 18.6 14.0 111.2 6.7 .375 .337 .289 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .353
Harrison Bader 406 232 15.3 13.2 111.2 2.9 .305 .268 .205 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Kendrys Morales 201 145 9.6 9.6 111.2 0.1 .228 .217 .194 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Stephen Piscotty 393 273 12.1 12.6 111.2 -0.7 .321 .289 .249 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .334
Ryan O’Hearn 370 231 12.2 13.0 111.2 -1.1 .277 .230 .195 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Tyler Austin 179 87 20.2 13.8 111.1 10.4 .330 .253 .188 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .362
Dexter Fowler 574 349 17.3 12.9 111.1 5.6 .331 .294 .238 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .349
DJ LeMahieu 655 513 9.2 6.7 111.1 3.8 .381 .349 .327 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Ronny Rodriguez 294 198 16.1 14.8 111.1 1.8 .307 .254 .221 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .341
Ben Gamel 356 208 8.2 10.1 111.1 -2.5 .368 .347 .248 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .327
Wilson Ramos 524 403 4.2 0.0 111.0 6.2 .334 .310 .288 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Pedro Severino 341 235 11.1 12.9 111.0 -2.5 .323 .285 .249 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Willy Adames 584 380 14.2 9.8 110.9 6.0 .353 .320 .254 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Jose Rondon 157 106 8.0 7.6 110.9 0.5 .264 .245 .196 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .332
Mark Canha 497 302 13.5 14.7 110.9 -1.6 .367 .308 .273 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .332
Jesse Winker 384 274 11.3 7.6 110.8 5.3 .327 .286 .269 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Jose Martinez 373 253 9.7 6.7 110.8 4.3 .354 .328 .269 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
Ozzie Albies 702 528 15.6 15.4 110.8 0.2 .355 .325 .295 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Justin Smoak 500 309 16.6 16.8 110.8 -0.4 .278 .223 .208 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Billy McKinney 276 182 12.3 14.6 110.8 -3.0 .297 .250 .215 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .328
Welington Castillo 251 158 14.1 13.2 110.7 1.3 .304 .247 .209 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Ronald Guzman 295 173 14.2 14.9 110.7 -0.9 .324 .282 .219 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Adam Eaton 656 466 10.0 13.2 110.7 -4.3 .335 .319 .279 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .323
Alex Gordon 633 460 11.8 9.0 110.6 3.8 .320 .301 .266 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Cody Bellinger 660 452 18.2 17.5 110.6 1.0 .374 .302 .305 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Charlie Blackmon 634 476 15.0 14.6 110.6 0.6 .378 .334 .314 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Ryan Zimmerman 190 134 9.8 9.7 110.6 0.2 .328 .297 .257 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .331
Jason Castro 275 147 15.1 13.7 110.5 2.2 .364 .307 .232 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Cameron Maybin 269 165 12.6 11.1 110.5 2.2 .407 .365 .285 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Victor Robles 617 414 15.5 14.4 110.5 1.3 .333 .310 .255 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Eric Thames 테임즈 459 257 18.7 18.8 110.5 -0.2 .380 .313 .247 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Albert Pujols 545 431 10.9 12.3 110.5 -1.9 .278 .238 .244 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .327
Cesar Puello 147 87 10.3 -3.2 110.4 17.8 .352 .325 .248 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .363
Jake Lamb 226 134 14.3 13.8 110.4 0.7 .269 .234 .193 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .335
Evan Longoria 508 344 14.9 13.9 110.3 1.4 .332 .291 .254 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Andrew McCutchen 262 164 12.0 12.7 110.3 -1.0 .342 .299 .256 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Amed Rosario 655 495 7.7 8.8 110.3 -1.4 .356 .338 .287 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .325
Jose Osuna 285 217 10.9 9.7 110.2 1.8 .317 .285 .264 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Elvis Andrus 648 510 6.2 6.9 110.2 -1.0 .321 .305 .275 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .324
Kole Calhoun 632 389 20.3 14.8 110.1 7.9 .326 .265 .232 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .352
Max Muncy 589 342 19.4 14.2 110.1 7.8 .357 .283 .251 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .351
Kevan Smith 211 155 9.3 5.8 110.1 4.9 .310 .287 .251 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Colin Moran 503 349 16.0 12.6 110.1 4.6 .365 .341 .277 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .342
Ji-Man Choi 487 308 14.4 12.6 110.1 2.7 .346 .303 .261 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .337
Martin Maldonado 374 250 13.7 11.7 110.1 2.7 .284 .250 .213 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .336
Leonys Martin 264 158 11.6 13.7 110.1 -2.6 .292 .255 .199 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .325
Tommy Edman 349 262 11.4 14.1 110.1 -3.6 .374 .346 .304 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .323
Chad Pinder 370 253 11.9 8.5 110.0 5.2 .319 .284 .240 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .340
David Freese 186 115 11.8 11.3 110.0 0.9 .432 .374 .315 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .331
Khris Davis 533 335 17.9 13.3 109.9 6.8 .315 .264 .220 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Orlando Arcia 546 391 10.7 6.2 109.9 5.8 .280 .253 .223 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .339
Brandon Nimmo 254 132 11.8 11.3 109.9 0.6 .333 .293 .221 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .330
Tyler Flowers 310 165 12.2 11.9 109.9 0.5 .369 .325 .229 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .330
Aledmys Diaz 247 188 11.6 12.2 109.9 -0.8 .303 .268 .271 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .327
Mike Tauchman 296 190 12.0 11.5 109.8 0.7 .379 .333 .277 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .330
Mitch Garver 359 226 18.6 15.3 109.7 5.2 .376 .277 .273 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .343
Corey Seager 541 395 13.9 14.1 109.7 -0.2 .337 .303 .272 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Dawel Lugo 288 215 7.7 8.0 109.7 -0.4 .307 .288 .245 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .324
Brett Gardner 550 383 11.4 13.6 109.7 -2.9 .319 .265 .251 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .322
Lourdes Gurriel Jr. 343 230 15.0 13.8 109.6 1.7 .375 .318 .277 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Jace Peterson 108 77 11.4 10.3 109.6 1.4 .286 .267 .220 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .330
Stephen Vogt 280 193 20.3 22.3 109.6 -2.8 .347 .311 .263 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .329
Domingo Santana 507 286 20.4 11.6 109.5 12.6 .392 .347 .253 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .358
Joey Votto 608 405 16.7 15.0 109.5 2.2 .338 .313 .261 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .335
Manny Pina 179 107 15.1 16.2 109.5 -1.5 .330 .284 .228 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .327
Oscar Mercado 482 360 11.2 13.6 109.5 -3.2 .323 .300 .269 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .320
Keon Broxton 228 101 17.5 7.7 109.4 12.8 .330 .292 .167 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .355
Gordon Beckham 240 154 15.8 14.3 109.4 2.0 .310 .282 .215 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .333
Niko Goodrum 472 284 13.3 13.1 109.4 0.3 .366 .338 .248 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .328
Jose Altuve 548 418 16.1 8.9 109.3 9.6 .353 .303 .298 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .347
Clint Frazier 246 158 15.3 15.4 109.2 -0.1 .380 .329 .267 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .328
Marwin Gonzalez 463 328 10.4 10.5 109.2 -0.2 .342 .310 .264 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .324
Jay Bruce 333 227 21.6 22.0 109.2 -0.6 .290 .200 .216 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .332
Miguel Rojas 526 423 5.9 8.8 109.2 -3.6 .321 .314 .284 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .314
Austin Slater 192 109 11.9 3.2 109.1 14.6 .367 .337 .238 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .354
Carson Kelly 365 233 14.1 14.4 109.1 -0.4 .326 .271 .245 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .326
Mark Reynolds 162 81 17.0 17.5 109.1 -0.6 .284 .247 .170 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .328
Victor Reyes 292 214 6.4 8.1 109.1 -2.1 .393 .384 .304 > 109 Max EV and AHHD >-= -4.4 .317
Anthony Santander 405 293 9.6 14.3 112.9 -6.7 .332 .285 .261 > 109 Max EV .329
Mike Moustakas 584 427 11.6 17.1 112.9 -8.1 .312 .250 .254 > 109 Max EV .327
Alex Dickerson 190 133 8.0 16.3 112.9 -12.4 .361 .331 .276 > 109 Max EV .316
Odubel Herrera 139 94 5.8 11.0 112.8 -6.9 .298 .290 .222 > 109 Max EV .325
Manny Machado 661 457 7.7 12.8 112.6 -8.0 .325 .274 .256 > 109 Max EV .323
Randal Grichuk 628 424 10.5 16.1 112.6 -8.5 .320 .266 .232 > 109 Max EV .324
John Hicks 333 209 10.6 15.8 112.5 -7.0 .318 .273 .210 > 109 Max EV .327
Max Kepler 596 426 11.2 18.2 112.5 -10.4 .308 .244 .252 > 109 Max EV .321
Jesus Aguilar 369 240 9.7 13.8 112.2 -5.8 .305 .272 .236 > 109 Max EV .327
Lewis Brinson 248 155 5.5 9.2 112.1 -4.8 .252 .255 .173 > 109 Max EV .326
Jose Ramirez 542 410 12.8 19.5 112.1 -9.4 .297 .256 .255 > 109 Max EV .322
Willi Castro 110 68 11.1 17.0 112.0 -7.2 .338 .333 .230 > 109 Max EV .325
Willie Calhoun 337 254 7.5 17.5 111.9 -14.3 .322 .262 .269 > 109 Max EV .308
Jason Heyward 589 403 7.7 11.1 111.8 -4.7 .318 .281 .251 > 109 Max EV .326
Tyler O’Neill 151 88 15.6 19.7 111.8 -5.8 .421 .386 .262 > 109 Max EV .330
Trevor Story 656 414 12.1 17.3 111.8 -8.1 .415 .361 .294 > 109 Max EV .322
Kevin Pillar 645 526 9.7 14.0 111.7 -5.7 .299 .270 .259 > 109 Max EV .325
Derek Dietrich 306 176 15.3 20.4 111.7 -7.1 .263 .176 .187 > 109 Max EV .327
Justin Upton 256 142 14.6 19.0 111.6 -6.3 .322 .261 .215 > 109 Max EV .327
Danny Jansen 384 268 10.7 16.3 111.4 -7.8 .267 .230 .207 > 109 Max EV .320
Cheslor Cuthbert 330 239 7.0 15.0 111.4 -11.5 .314 .288 .246 > 109 Max EV .310
Lucas Duda 119 71 12.0 22.2 111.4 -16.8 .240 .197 .171 > 109 Max EV .303
Aaron Hicks 255 149 11.5 15.0 111.0 -5.1 .342 .286 .235 > 109 Max EV .324
Rhys Hoskins 705 399 20.3 24.0 111.0 -5.3 .319 .267 .226 > 109 Max EV .330
Didi Gregorius 344 273 9.9 17.2 110.8 -10.0 .282 .237 .238 > 109 Max EV .313
Mike Ford 163 115 10.1 15.6 110.7 -8.3 .322 .243 .259 > 109 Max EV .315
Robbie Grossman 482 336 8.2 12.1 110.6 -4.9 .301 .288 .240 > 109 Max EV .320
Mac Williamson 윌리엄슨 144 84 4.3 8.5 110.6 -5.6 .238 .200 .156 > 109 Max EV .316
Yuli Gurriel 612 501 5.1 14.5 110.6 -13.0 .333 .289 .298 > 109 Max EV .302
Lorenzo Cain 623 455 2.5 6.5 110.4 -5.9 .317 .301 .260 > 109 Max EV .313
Sam Travis 157 109 2.3 7.7 110.4 -7.7 .284 .243 .215 > 109 Max EV .309
Ty France 201 136 9.7 15.1 110.4 -8.0 .316 .279 .234 > 109 Max EV .314
Travis Demeritte 186 108 11.9 15.6 110.2 -5.6 .352 .337 .225 > 109 Max EV .319
Melky Cabrera 397 336 3.4 8.8 110.2 -7.4 .314 .300 .280 > 109 Max EV .310
Nick Williams 112 63 7.6 10.9 109.9 -4.5 .254 .230 .151 > 109 Max EV .317
Ryon Healy 187 133 12.9 16.7 109.9 -5.4 .301 .262 .237 > 109 Max EV .319
Nolan Arenado 662 500 12.9 17.7 109.9 -6.7 .368 .312 .315 > 109 Max EV .317
Gleyber Torres 604 422 14.2 17.3 109.6 -4.4 .359 .296 .278 > 109 Max EV .321
Donovan Solano 228 165 9.5 14.3 109.6 -6.6 .423 .409 .330 > 109 Max EV .313
Eduardo Nunez 174 141 -0.4 6.3 109.6 -9.1 .266 .257 .228 > 109 Max EV .301
Manuel Margot 441 310 5.9 13.1 109.6 -9.9 .297 .272 .234 > 109 Max EV .304
Francisco Mejia 244 168 11.5 19.4 109.6 -10.0 .351 .319 .265 > 109 Max EV .309
Jake Bauers 423 258 9.7 14.7 109.5 -6.6 .323 .290 .226 > 109 Max EV .313
Kevin Plawecki 174 128 10.9 15.7 109.4 -6.3 .273 .256 .222 > 109 Max EV .314
Jose Peraza 403 317 5.4 16.8 109.4 -13.4 .281 .268 .239 > 109 Max EV .297
Corey Dickerson 279 205 12.6 16.2 109.3 -4.9 .382 .344 .304 > 109 Max EV .317
Mookie Betts 706 501 15.3 19.3 109.3 -6.2 .349 .309 .295 > 109 Max EV .317
Ryan Cordell 247 153 12.3 16.9 109.2 -6.0 .308 .287 .221 > 109 Max EV .315
Nick Solak 135 87 10.0 6.3 109.0 4.7 .391 .354 .293 < 109 mph .332
Mitch Haniger 283 167 18.0 18.6 109.0 -0.9 .323 .257 .220 < 109 mph .328
Matt Carpenter 492 292 24.4 18.2 108.9 7.8 .321 .285 .226 < 109 mph .348
Michael Brantley 637 509 10.3 10.4 108.9 -0.1 .349 .320 .311 < 109 mph .323
Austin Barnes 242 158 7.4 16.0 108.9 -10.7 .272 .248 .203 < 109 mph .301
Jordan Luplow 261 161 19.3 15.6 108.8 5.2 .376 .313 .276 < 109 mph .339
Andrelton Simmons 424 361 2.5 9.5 108.8 -9.4 .291 .277 .264 < 109 mph .299
Meibrys Viloria 148 94 5.5 2.3 108.7 4.3 .298 .293 .211 < 109 mph .326
Austin Hedges 347 206 18.3 20.4 108.7 -3.1 .267 .228 .176 < 109 mph .322
Tim Beckham 328 202 18.8 10.8 108.6 11.1 .356 .305 .237 < 109 mph .349
Eddie Rosario 590 479 19.2 16.8 108.6 3.2 .322 .273 .276 < 109 mph .334
Luis Rengifo 406 264 10.0 9.1 108.6 1.2 .317 .300 .238 < 109 mph .323
Will Smith 196 121 21.8 23.6 108.6 -2.6 .355 .264 .253 < 109 mph .326
Marco Hernandez 155 107 1.9 4.3 108.6 -2.8 .346 .337 .250 < 109 mph .310
J.P. Crawford 396 265 8.3 11.4 108.6 -3.6 .291 .275 .226 < 109 mph .313
Sandy Leon 191 128 11.8 20.4 108.6 -9.9 .254 .231 .192 < 109 mph .305
Juan Lagares 285 184 -0.3 9.6 108.6 -12.9 .296 .279 .213 < 109 mph .289
Leury Garcia 618 449 8.8 4.8 108.5 5.1 .356 .353 .279 < 109 mph .329
Mike Yastrzemski 411 265 18.0 18.3 108.5 -0.5 .377 .325 .272 < 109 mph .326
Dominic Smith 197 132 14.0 14.8 108.5 -1.0 .376 .320 .282 < 109 mph .322
Adam Jones 528 384 11.3 13.3 108.5 -2.7 .325 .296 .260 < 109 mph .317
Yonder Alonso 335 223 10.5 13.9 108.5 -4.8 .259 .224 .199 < 109 mph .312
Chris Davis 352 170 21.8 14.1 108.4 10.6 .322 .270 .179 < 109 mph .350
Adalberto Mondesi 443 292 11.6 9.6 108.4 2.7 .373 .357 .263 < 109 mph .326
Asdrubal Cabrera 514 347 15.2 14.1 108.4 1.4 .331 .294 .260 < 109 mph .327
Dansby Swanson 545 362 15.0 14.3 108.4 1.1 .332 .300 .251 < 109 mph .326
Todd Frazier 499 337 12.4 17.4 108.4 -6.7 .328 .284 .251 < 109 mph .310
Cesar Hernandez 667 511 3.5 9.3 108.4 -7.1 .331 .313 .279 < 109 mph .302
Nick Ahmed 625 452 11.2 7.6 108.3 4.7 .309 .280 .254 < 109 mph .330
Chris Taylor 414 254 14.5 12.6 108.3 2.5 .372 .344 .262 < 109 mph .328
Greg Garcia 372 228 4.8 3.4 108.3 1.7 .333 .323 .248 < 109 mph .319
Michael Brosseau 142 94 13.4 14.1 108.3 -1.0 .383 .345 .273 < 109 mph .321
Jonathan Lucroy 328 242 11.3 12.9 108.3 -2.2 .278 .253 .232 < 109 mph .317
Guillermo Heredia 231 145 8.3 12.4 108.3 -5.2 .313 .293 .225 < 109 mph .309
Brian McCann 316 230 13.7 11.2 108.2 3.3 .300 .261 .249 < 109 mph .328
Marcus Semien 747 551 14.6 14.8 108.2 -0.4 .336 .294 .285 < 109 mph .322
Jurickson Profar 518 387 13.5 14.2 108.2 -0.8 .258 .218 .218 < 109 mph .321
Jorge Polanco 704 524 16.8 17.9 108.2 -1.4 .355 .328 .295 < 109 mph .322
Rosell Herrera 119 79 3.3 11.2 108.2 -10.0 .266 .250 .200 < 109 mph .296
Joey Wendle 263 194 3.6 11.6 108.2 -10.1 .284 .272 .231 < 109 mph .296
A.J. Pollock 342 238 12.0 13.9 108.1 -2.7 .345 .300 .266 < 109 mph .315
Bo Bichette 212 147 8.5 10.3 108.0 -2.7 .415 .368 .311 < 109 mph .312
Alex Avila 201 96 20.4 9.4 107.9 16.5 .354 .287 .207 < 109 mph .358
Yairo Munoz 181 136 5.5 6.7 107.9 -1.4 .338 .328 .267 < 109 mph .312
Charlie Tilson 157 105 -0.7 5.1 107.9 -7.5 .311 .305 .229 < 109 mph .296
Tim Anderson 518 387 9.9 8.6 107.8 1.7 .427 .399 .335 < 109 mph .321
Robinson Chirinos 437 248 17.7 16.6 107.8 1.5 .351 .306 .238 < 109 mph .326
Rio Ruiz 413 283 10.8 10.9 107.8 -0.1 .302 .272 .232 < 109 mph .318
Grayson Greiner 224 139 7.9 11.7 107.8 -5.0 .300 .276 .202 < 109 mph .307
Daniel Robertson 237 148 6.9 5.5 107.7 1.8 .297 .288 .213 < 109 mph .318
Jose Iglesias 530 433 8.2 7.0 107.7 1.4 .332 .315 .288 < 109 mph .318
Shed Long 168 112 11.5 10.7 107.7 1.1 .357 .327 .263 < 109 mph .320
Justin Turner 549 393 17.2 17.6 107.7 -0.6 .351 .304 .290 < 109 mph .321
Kolten Wong 549 405 9.8 10.7 107.7 -1.1 .335 .321 .285 < 109 mph .315
Andrew Benintendi 615 405 16.4 17.3 107.7 -1.2 .352 .333 .266 < 109 mph .320
Charlie Culberson 144 91 11.3 12.6 107.7 -1.7 .376 .345 .259 < 109 mph .315
Anthony Rendon 646 461 16.8 19.6 107.7 -4.4 .372 .323 .319 < 109 mph .314
Josh Reddick 550 442 8.4 15.6 107.7 -9.1 .308 .288 .275 < 109 mph .299
Buster Posey 445 333 11.2 8.8 107.6 3.3 .310 .296 .257 < 109 mph .324
Nick Senzel 414 272 12.3 11.0 107.6 1.8 .343 .319 .256 < 109 mph .322
Yan Gomes 358 230 13.5 17.7 107.6 -5.6 .303 .265 .223 < 109 mph .309
Tim Locastro 250 169 6.2 12.0 107.6 -6.9 .312 .310 .250 < 109 mph .301
Austin Nola 267 177 9.3 16.0 107.6 -8.8 .362 .325 .269 < 109 mph .299
Jordy Mercer 271 199 13.5 13.2 107.5 0.4 .347 .316 .270 < 109 mph .320
Tucker Barnhart 364 235 11.8 11.6 107.5 0.2 .311 .278 .231 < 109 mph .318
Russell Martin 249 148 10.4 10.8 107.5 -0.6 .305 .276 .220 < 109 mph .315
Jose Trevino 126 96 6.4 7.8 107.5 -1.9 .323 .312 .258 < 109 mph .310
Yolmer Sanchez 555 386 7.2 13.0 107.5 -6.9 .321 .324 .252 < 109 mph .301
Josh Rojas 157 97 16.8 10.3 107.4 9.4 .309 .295 .217 < 109 mph .339
Chance Sisco 198 104 21.2 15.9 107.4 6.9 .330 .276 .210 < 109 mph .337
Christian Vazquez 521 386 13.8 12.9 107.4 1.2 .344 .305 .276 < 109 mph .321
Alex Bregman 690 476 14.4 19.6 107.4 -7.1 .342 .281 .296 < 109 mph .306
Willians Astudillo 204 182 8.3 15.8 107.4 -9.7 .274 .258 .268 < 109 mph .296
Ildemaro Vargas 211 178 8.8 3.0 107.3 7.2 .303 .279 .269 < 109 mph .327
Kurt Suzuki 309 245 14.2 19.2 107.3 -6.3 .300 .248 .264 < 109 mph .307
Jeff McNeil 567 432 15.6 13.2 107.2 3.2 .372 .337 .318 < 109 mph .325
Cole Tucker 159 108 7.0 6.5 107.2 0.7 .287 .276 .211 < 109 mph .314
Addison Russell 241 159 9.0 8.6 107.2 0.5 .319 .280 .237 < 109 mph .315
Garrett Hampson 327 215 9.6 11.1 107.2 -1.9 .344 .322 .247 < 109 mph .311
David Dahl 413 267 17.7 10.9 107.1 9.2 .417 .386 .302 < 109 mph .338
Raimel Tapia 447 323 10.8 7.2 107.1 4.4 .359 .341 .275 < 109 mph .323
Logan Forsythe 367 217 14.7 12.4 107.1 3.1 .327 .307 .227 < 109 mph .324
Kyle Seager 443 307 19.7 18.4 107.1 1.8 .304 .248 .239 < 109 mph .325
Richie Martin Jr. 309 206 6.8 7.2 107.1 -0.5 .286 .272 .208 < 109 mph .311
Kevin Newman 531 431 7.3 8.1 107.1 -0.8 .350 .333 .308 < 109 mph .311
Jason Kipnis 511 379 10.4 13.1 107.1 -3.4 .294 .265 .245 < 109 mph .308
Zack Collins 102 47 22.6 15.3 107.0 12.7 .333 .295 .186 < 109 mph .349
J.T. Riddle 139 87 18.1 10.7 107.0 9.8 .278 .226 .189 < 109 mph .338
Curtis Granderson 363 220 21.0 18.6 107.0 3.0 .262 .220 .183 < 109 mph .328
Trent Grisham 183 111 13.4 16.0 107.0 -3.4 .324 .286 .231 < 109 mph .310
Jedd Gyorko 101 68 13.5 16.3 107.0 -4.0 .235 .212 .174 < 109 mph .309
Martin Prado 260 207 3.9 8.3 107.0 -5.5 .275 .268 .233 < 109 mph .299
Bubba Starling 197 130 16.7 11.0 106.9 6.4 .305 .286 .215 < 109 mph .330
Chris Owings 196 102 13.4 9.1 106.9 5.4 .245 .222 .139 < 109 mph .326
Eduardo Escobar 699 513 20.5 18.4 106.9 2.5 .331 .283 .269 < 109 mph .326
Tyler Wade 108 68 6.4 9.1 106.9 -3.1 .338 .328 .245 < 109 mph .305
Josh VanMeter 260 173 12.7 16.0 106.9 -4.5 .312 .279 .237 < 109 mph .307
Ehire Adrianza 236 168 9.5 13.6 106.9 -5.1 .324 .311 .272 < 109 mph .303
Francisco Cervelli 160 101 17.8 11.9 106.8 7.7 .297 .278 .213 < 109 mph .333
Steven Duggar 281 186 9.0 8.0 106.8 1.4 .328 .313 .234 < 109 mph .315
Brandon Crawford 560 387 14.1 8.3 106.7 7.4 .295 .274 .228 < 109 mph .329
Tomas Nido 144 100 10.6 6.1 106.7 5.8 .260 .232 .191 < 109 mph .323
Matt Joyce 238 155 20.4 16.7 106.7 4.7 .381 .351 .295 < 109 mph .329
Roman Quinn 122 71 10.0 6.6 106.7 4.5 .307 .271 .213 < 109 mph .321
Kyle Farmer 197 124 20.2 17.7 106.7 2.9 .336 .284 .230 < 109 mph .325
Matt Thaiss 164 95 18.5 15.3 106.6 4.9 .326 .264 .211 < 109 mph .328
Nick Martini 109 68 8.4 5.4 106.6 3.7 .309 .299 .226 < 109 mph .317
Brian Dozier 482 305 18.1 18.8 106.6 -1.0 .317 .271 .238 < 109 mph .316
Brandon Belt 616 400 20.6 21.9 106.6 -1.7 .305 .275 .234 < 109 mph .317
Max Stassi 147 85 15.4 12.4 106.4 4.1 .212 .202 .136 < 109 mph .323
Matt Wieters 183 120 15.0 13.5 106.4 2.0 .293 .223 .214 < 109 mph .318
Daniel Murphy 478 364 9.5 14.9 106.4 -6.6 .330 .307 .279 < 109 mph .298
Dylan Moore 282 152 13.4 18.4 106.4 -7.1 .329 .290 .206 < 109 mph .300
Cory Spangenberg 102 60 15.6 0.1 106.3 18.6 .367 .351 .232 < 109 mph .348
Josh Phegley 342 254 15.5 17.0 106.3 -1.8 .291 .258 .239 < 109 mph .311
Wilmer Flores 285 235 12.5 16.4 106.3 -5.0 .357 .332 .317 < 109 mph .303
Neil Walker 381 261 17.3 11.7 106.2 6.9 .337 .316 .261 < 109 mph .328
Mauricio Dubon 111 86 14.3 9.5 106.2 5.7 .337 .305 .274 < 109 mph .324
Yadier Molina 452 366 15.7 13.8 106.2 2.3 .309 .289 .270 < 109 mph .318
Joe Panik 491 395 11.2 12.2 106.2 -1.1 .270 .262 .244 < 109 mph .309
Jacob Stallings 210 152 13.6 11.0 106.1 3.6 .329 .303 .262 < 109 mph .319
Omar Narvaez 482 335 20.0 17.8 106.1 2.7 .351 .306 .278 < 109 mph .322
Adam Frazier 608 481 10.9 12.2 106.1 -1.6 .318 .306 .278 < 109 mph .307
Dustin Garneau 101 64 13.6 20.7 106.0 -8.5 .323 .295 .244 < 109 mph .296
Greg Allen 256 183 9.7 7.1 105.9 3.0 .290 .280 .229 < 109 mph .314
Adeiny Hechavarria 221 156 12.9 11.4 105.9 1.8 .314 .272 .241 < 109 mph .314
Tommy La Stella 321 261 12.4 13.3 105.9 -1.1 .319 .282 .295 < 109 mph .308
Mike Freeman 213 126 15.8 6.7 105.7 11.0 .389 .388 .277 < 109 mph .332
Mallex Smith 566 369 8.5 7.1 105.7 1.6 .312 .302 .227 < 109 mph .309
Daniel Descalso 194 113 7.5 10.5 105.7 -3.9 .254 .245 .173 < 109 mph .298
Adam Haseley 242 163 12.4 4.8 105.6 9.5 .362 .344 .266 < 109 mph .326
Freddy Galvis 589 412 15.5 14.2 105.6 1.7 .349 .312 .260 < 109 mph .314
Luis Urias 249 159 11.9 9.5 105.5 2.9 .302 .284 .223 < 109 mph .313
Ryan Goins 163 101 8.0 6.9 105.5 1.3 .356 .347 .250 < 109 mph .307
Jarrod Dyson 452 315 6.5 9.0 105.5 -2.9 .290 .275 .230 < 109 mph .299
Jeff Mathis 244 142 8.5 16.8 105.5 -9.9 .254 .243 .158 < 109 mph .287
Nicky Lopez 402 328 3.5 2.3 105.4 1.3 .274 .273 .240 < 109 mph .303
Gerardo Parra 301 214 19.6 10.4 105.3 10.5 .294 .264 .234 < 109 mph .332
Cam Gallagher 142 97 6.1 11.6 105.3 -6.5 .300 .281 .238 < 109 mph .291
Andrew Knapp 160 86 15.9 12.8 105.2 4.0 .330 .325 .213 < 109 mph .317
Luke Maile 129 87 13.9 12.0 105.2 2.4 .205 .190 .151 < 109 mph .312
Matt Duffy 169 119 2.8 5.5 105.2 -3.4 .311 .305 .252 < 109 mph .293
Ben Zobrist 176 128 4.6 4.9 105.1 -0.4 .305 .299 .260 < 109 mph .300
Harold Castro 369 271 12.9 7.6 105.0 6.6 .376 .367 .291 < 109 mph .318
Josh Harrison 147 112 15.7 19.5 105.0 -4.5 .214 .207 .175 < 109 mph .300
Steve Wilkerson 361 221 11.0 10.4 104.9 0.7 .330 .300 .225 < 109 mph .306
Isiah Kiner-Falefa 222 155 0.8 6.5 104.9 -7.2 .310 .307 .238 < 109 mph .283
Whit Merrifield 735 554 16.2 15.3 104.8 1.1 .369 .350 .302 < 109 mph .310
Bryan Holaday 129 94 8.5 10.8 104.8 -2.9 .333 .308 .278 < 109 mph .297
Cavan Biggio 430 230 23.5 19.8 104.6 4.9 .355 .309 .234 < 109 mph .322
Reese McGuire 105 79 11.8 13.8 104.5 -2.5 .363 .324 .299 < 109 mph .299
David Fletcher 653 531 5.8 9.6 104.5 -4.1 .324 .317 .290 < 109 mph .291
Zack Cozart 107 84 9.9 21.5 104.2 -14.1 .143 .143 .124 < 109 mph .275
Curt Casali 236 150 23.8 19.1 104.1 5.6 .344 .308 .251 < 109 mph .321
Delino DeShields 408 263 12.0 10.7 104.0 1.4 .333 .333 .249 < 109 mph .303
Isan Diaz 201 121 13.2 17.3 104.0 -5.4 .256 .224 .173 < 109 mph .292
Yonathan Daza 105 77 5.7 3.1 103.8 3.1 .260 .260 .206 < 109 mph .301
Tim Lopes 128 83 10.8 8.8 103.7 2.5 .361 .354 .270 < 109 mph .303
Humberto Arteaga 135 97 3.7 7.5 103.7 -4.3 .247 .255 .197 < 109 mph .285
Hanser Alberto 550 478 11.9 10.7 103.6 1.3 .333 .318 .305 < 109 mph .301
Jon Jay 182 141 10.6 5.3 103.5 5.6 .312 .324 .267 < 109 mph .307
Ian Kinsler 281 205 11.9 16.8 103.5 -5.4 .273 .240 .217 < 109 mph .289
Joey Rickard 189 118 18.4 17.6 103.4 0.9 .322 .304 .226 < 109 mph .305
Tony Wolters 411 295 9.6 9.8 103.4 -0.2 .314 .314 .262 < 109 mph .296
Ender Inciarte 230 159 6.5 9.3 103.3 -3.0 .308 .286 .246 < 109 mph .288
Jake Rogers 128 63 27.4 20.2 103.1 8.2 .222 .175 .125 < 109 mph .323
Brock Holt 295 202 9.0 11.0 103.0 -2.3 .374 .365 .297 < 109 mph .290
Eric Sogard 442 335 11.2 18.4 102.9 -7.8 .339 .316 .290 < 109 mph .281
Myles Straw 128 85 11.9 7.7 102.8 4.5 .341 .345 .269 < 109 mph .303
Dee Gordon 421 339 6.2 5.5 102.5 0.7 .317 .313 .275 < 109 mph .291
Scooter Gennett 139 94 11.6 12.6 102.3 -1.1 .319 .304 .226 < 109 mph .291
Luis Arraez 366 298 19.3 11.7 102.2 8.0 .363 .355 .334 < 109 mph .312
Wilmer Difo 144 103 5.4 7.4 102.2 -2.2 .320 .310 .252 < 109 mph .283
Tony Kemp 279 202 22.5 13.0 101.4 10.3 .256 .227 .212 < 109 mph .315
Billy Hamilton 353 232 5.0 12.6 99.9 -7.9 .295 .299 .218 < 109 mph .263

There is a ton to digest but the list passes the eye test for a batter’s ability to make hard solid contact.

I’m calling it quits for today. There’s a ton that can be be done with these measures and I have a few more articles planned. One option is to determine if a hitter’s struggle or breakout is from a swing adjustment. Also, instead of all batted ball, the batted balls off fastballs can be examined to find out how aging vets are adjusting to keep up with their declining bodies. All of this and much more from a profile on Dylan Moser. Thanks to Tanner Stokey and everyone else at Driveline for the little nugget.

We hoped you liked reading A Batter’s Hard Hit Angle: Introduction by Jeff Zimmerman!

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Jeff, one of the authors of the fantasy baseball guide,The Process, writes for RotoGraphs, The Hardball Times, Rotowire, Baseball America, and BaseballHQ. He has been nominated for two SABR Analytics Research Award for Contemporary Analysis and won it in 2013 in tandem with Bill Petti. He has won three FSWA Awards including on for his MASH series. In his first two seasons in Tout Wars, he's won the H2H league and mixed auction league. Follow him on Twitter @jeffwzimmerman.

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acrinaldi
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acrinaldi

Thanks for the article, Jeff, really enjoyed it!

You mind walking me through quickly on how you’d read this for a random player, say, Victor Robles?

Mostly having trouble understanding the difference between H% and Proj H%.

Thanks again!!